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Geography

Midwest as shown by U.S. Census Bureau official map from regdiv.pdf

Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance «Old Northwest» states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase. The states of the Old Northwest are also known as «Great Lakes states.» Many of the Louisiana Purchase states are also known as Great Plains states.

The North Central Region is defined by the Census Bureau as these 12 states:

  • Illinois: Old Northwest, Ohio River, and Great Lakes state.
  • Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, and Great Lakes state.
  • Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Border state, Great Plains state.
  • Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state.
  • Minnesota: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state; western part Louisiana Purchase.
  • Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Border state, Great Plains state.
  • Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state .
  • Ohio: Old Northwest (Historic Connecticut Western Reserve), Ohio River, and Great Lakes state. Also a Northeastern Appalachian state in the southeast.
  • South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • Wisconsin: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state.

Physical features

Konza Prairie, in the Flint Hills section of Kansas.

These states are generally perceived as being relatively flat. That is true of several areas, but there is a measure of geographical variation. In particular, the eastern Midwest lying near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, the Great Lakes Basin, and northern parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa demonstrate a high degree of topographical variety. Prairies cover most of the states west of the Mississippi River with the exception of eastern Minnesota, the Ozark Mountains of southern Missouri, and the southern tip of Illinois. Illinois lies within an area called the «prairie peninsula,» an eastward extension of prairies that borders deciduous forests to the north, east, and south.

Rainfall decreases from east to west, resulting in different types of prairies, with the tallgrass prairie in the wetter eastern region, mixed-grass prairie in the central Great Plains, and shortgrass prairie towards the rain shadow of the Rockies. Today, these three prairie types largely correspond to the corn/soybean area, the wheat belt, and the western rangelands, respectively.

Hardwood forests in this area were logged to extinction in the late 1800s. The majority of the Midwest can now be categorized as urbanized areas or pastoral agricultural areas. Areas in northern Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin, such as the Porcupine Mountains and the Ohio River valley, are largely undeveloped.

Residents of the wheat belt, which consists of the westernmost states of the Midwest, generally consider themselves part of the Midwest, while residents of the remaining rangeland areas usually do not. Of course, exact boundaries are nebulous and shifting.

Ten largest cities and metropolitan areas

RankCityState(s)Population(2000 census)
1ChicagoIL2,896,016
2DetroitMI951,270
3IndianapolisIN791,926
4ColumbusOH711,470
5MilwaukeeWI596,974
6ClevelandOH478,403
7Kansas CityMO441,545
8OmahaNE390,007
9MinneapolisMN382,618
10St. LouisMO348,189
RankMetropolitan areaState(s)Population(2000 census)
1ChicagoIL-IN-WI9,098,316
2DetroitMI4,452,557
3MinneapolisMN-WI2,968,806
4St. LouisMO-IL2,698,687
5ClevelandOH2,148,143
6CincinnatiOH-KY-IN2,009,632
7Kansas CityMO-KS1,836,038
8ColumbusOH1,612,694
9IndianapolisIN1,525,104
10MilwaukeeWI1,500,741

История

В середине XIX века начался приток на Великие равнины поселенцев из восточной части США, постепенно начавших вытеснять коренные народы и использовать землю под сельскохозяйственные нужды. Бизоньи стада практически исчезли к моменту завершения гражданской войны в США, и место бизонов заняли стада крупного рогатого скота из Техаса и других регионов. Поселенцы также по достоинству оценили пахотный потенциал богатых чернозёмов в восточной части равнин. Приток поселенцев усиливался по мере того, как регион пересекали железные дороги, связывавшие Великие равнины с большими городами (Виннипег, Миннеаполис, Чикаго и другие) и обеспечивавшие возможность бесперебойных перевозок больших объёмов зерна. Вдоль железных дорог возникало множество новых поселений, многие из которых позже были покинуты или сохранились только как место жительства обслуживающего персонала очередного элеватора; в одном только Канзасе насчитывается 6000 «городов-призраков». Коренные народы выселялись в резервации, в США в массовом порядке переселялись на Индейскую территорию (позже штат Оклахома), а на канадской стороне границы подписали отказ от своих земель в рамках серии договоров с правительством в 1871—1877 годах.


Поля кукурузы в Иллинойсе

Средний Запад стал главным аграрным регионом США. Занимая всего пятую часть территории США, он дает 45-50% её сельскохозяйственной продукции. Однако 1930-е ознаменовались катастрофической эрозией полей в западных частях региона, которые превратились в печально знаменитый «Пыльный котёл». После этого начались федеральные программы по внедрению травосеяния, севооборотов, контурной вспашки и созданию лесополос.

Средний Запад стал и промышленным регионом, здесь сосредоточена треть промышленных рабочих страны.

Culture

Chicago is the largest city in the Midwest.

Detroit is the busiest commercial border crossing in North America.

Indianapolis is the third largest city in the Midwest

Factors that probably affected the shaping of Midwest values include the religious heritage of the abolitionist, pro-education Congregationalists to the stalwart Calvinist heritage of the Midwestern Protestants, as well as the agricultural values inculcated by the hardy pioneers who settled the area. The Midwest remains a melting pot of Protestantism and Calvinism, mistrustful of authority and power.

While some point to the small towns and agricultural communities in Kansas, Iowa, the Dakotas, and Nebraska of the Great Plains as representative of traditional Midwestern lifestyles and values, others would assert that the declining Rust Belt cities of the Great Lakes, with their histories of nineteenth and early twentieth century immigration, manufacturing base, and strong Catholic influence, are more representative of the Midwestern experience.

Music

Because of African-American migration from the South, a large African American urban population lives in most of the region’s major cities, although the concentration is not nearly as large as that of the Southern United States. The combination of industry and cultures, jazz, blues, and rock and roll led to an outpouring of musical creativity in the Midwest, including new music like the Motown Sound and techno from Detroit and house music and the blues from Chicago.

Religion

Catholicism is the largest single religious denomination in the Midwest, varying between 19 and 29 percent of the state populations. Baptists compose 14 percent of the populations of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, up to 22 percent in Missouri, and down to 5 percent in Minnesota. Lutherans peak at 22-24 percent in Wisconsin and Minnesota, reflecting the Scandinavian and German heritage of those states. Pentecostal and charismatic denominations have few adherents in the Midwest, ranging between 1 and 7 percent (although the Assembly of God began in lower Missouri). Judaism and Islam are each practiced by 1 percent or less of the population, with slightly higher concentrations in major urban areas. Those with no religious affiliation make up 13-16 percent of the Midwest’s population.

Linguistic characteristics

The accents of the region are generally distinct from those of the South and many urban areas of the American Northeast. The accent of most of the Midwest is considered by many to be «standard» American English.

In some regions, particularly the farther north into the Upper Midwest one goes, a definite accent is detectable, usually reflecting the heritage of the area. For example, Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and Michigan’s Upper Peninsula have strong Scandinavian accents, which intensifies as one travels north. Michigan accents closely resemble Canadian ones across the border. Many parts of western Michigan have a noticeable Dutch-flavored accent.

Also, residents of Chicago are recognized as having their own distinctive nasal accent, with a similar accent occurring in parts of Wisconsin, Michigan, northern Indiana, Cleveland, and western New York State. Arguably, this may have been derived from heavy Irish, German, Polish, and Eastern European influences in the Great Lakes region. The most southern parts of the Midwest show distinctly southern speech patterns.

Credits

New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article
in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:

  • Midwestern_United_States  history
  • Northwest_Territory  history
  • George_Rogers_Clark  history
  • Indian_Removal  history

The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia:

History of «Midwestern United States»

Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.

References

  • Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period 1815-1840. 1951.
  • Cayton, Andrew R.L. Midwest and the Nation. 1990.
  • Cayton, Andrew R.L. and Susan E. Gray (eds.). The American Midwest: Essays on Regional History. 2001.
  • Frederick, John T. (ed.) Out of the Midwest: A Collection of Present-Day Writing. 1944.
  • Garland, John H. The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography. 1955.
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896. 1971.
  • Meyer, David R. Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing Belt in the Nineteenth Century, The Journal of Economic History, 49(4).
  • Shannon, Fred A. «The Status of the Midwestern Farmer in 1900.» The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 37(3): 491-510.
  • Sisson, Richard, Christian Zacher, and Andrew Cayton (eds.). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-253-34886-2.

Крупнейшие города и городские округа Среднего Запада

Чикаго — крупнейший город Среднего Запада

Детройт — автомобильная столица США, второй по величине город Среднего Запада. Вид ночью со стороны реки Детройт из канадского города Виндзор

Крупнейшим городом в регионе является Чикаго, следующие по величине — Детройт и Индианаполис. Самым старым городом на Среднем Западе является Су-Сент-Мари, основанный французскими миссионерами и исследователями в 1668 году.

10 крупнейших городов Среднего Запада
МестоГородШтатЧисленность населения(перепись 2000 г.)
1ЧикагоИллинойс2,896,016
2ДетройтМичиган951,270
3ИндианаполисИндиана781,870
4КолумбусОгайо711,470
5МилуокиВисконсин596,974
6КливлендОгайо478,403
7Канзас-СитиМиссури441,545
8ОмахаНебраска390,007
9МиннеаполисМиннесота382,618
10Сент-ЛуисМиссури348,149
Городской округ (город с пригородами) (англ. City area)
МестоГородской округШтаты, входящий в данный округЧисленность населения(перепись 2000 г.)
1ЧикагоИллинойс-Индиана8,307,904
2ДетройтМичиган3,903,377
3Миннеаполис—Сент-ПолМиннесота2,388,593
4Сент-ЛуисМиссури—Иллинойс2,077,662
5КливлендОгайо1,786,647
6ЦинциннатиОгайо—Кентукки—Индиана1,503,262
7Канзас-СитиМиссури—Канзас1,361,744
8МилуокиВисконсин1,308,913
9ИндианаполисИндиана1,287,919
10КолумбусОгайо1,133,193
Городская агломерация (англ. Metro area)
МестоНазвание городской агломерацииШтаты, входящие в агломерациюЧисленность населения(перепись 2000 г.)
1Чикагская агломерацияИллинойс—Индиана—Висконсин9,098,316
2Детройтская агломерацияМичиган4,452,557
3Агломерация Миннеаполис—Сент-ПолМиннесота-Висконсин2,968,806
4Большой Сент-ЛуисМиссури—Иллинойс2,698,687
5Большой КливлендОгайо2,148,143
6Агломерация Цинциннати—Северный КентуккиОгайо-Кентукки-Индиана2,009,632
7Метрополия Канзас-СитиМиссури—Канзас1,836,038
8Метрополия КолумбусОгайо1,612,694
9Метрополия ИндианаполисИндиана1,525,104
10Агломерация Милуоки—Расин-Вукеша (англ. Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha Metropolitan Area)Висконсин1,500,741

Notes

  1. John Henry Garland, The North American Midwest a Regional Geography (Wiley, Chapman & Hall, 1955).
  2. U.S. Geological Survey, Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative: Midwest Region Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  3. U.S. Census Bureau, Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More Ranked by Population:2000 (pdf). Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  4. U.S. Census Bureau, Population in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Ranked by 2000 Population for the United States and Puerto Rico: 1990 and 2000 (pdf). Retrieved November 20 2007.
  5. Ralph H. Smuckler, «The Region of Isolationism,» American Political Science Review, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jun., 1953): 386-401.
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